KACL Lecture Series
#13 : Sigeru Miyagawa
(宮川 繁) 氏
Some Consequences of the EPP Analysis of Scrambling
Date : January 15, 2002, 17:00--18:30
Place : Meeting Room, the 3rd Floor of Graduate School
of Humanities and Social Sciences Building, Kobe University
In Miyagawa (2001), I propose that A-scrambling is triggered by the EPP
requirement of T. This analysis extends the notion in Miyagawa (1995,
1996, 1997) that scrambling is not due to an optional movement, and is
compatible with the view that UG does not tolerate optional operations.
The crucial minimal pair is the following.
In (1) "zen'in" can only be interpreted outside the scope of sentential
negation (cf. Kato 1988), but in the object-scrambled example in (2), it
may be interpreted inside the scope of negation. On the assumption that
for something like 'all' to be interpreted inside the scope of negation,
it must be c-commanded by negation (Klima 1964), I propose that in both
(1) and (2), something MUST move to TP-Spec. In (1), it is the subject
"zen'in," which puts it outside the c-command domain of negation, while
in (2), it is the object "siken," which allows the subject "zen'in" to
stay in situ in vP-Spec, where it is c-commanded by negation. What is
crucial is the obligatory movement of subject/object to TP-Spec. I
propose that this movement is triggered by the EPP requirement of T.
- Zen'in-ga siken-o uke-nakat-ta (yo/to omotta).
'All didn't take the test.' *NOT > ALL
- Siken-o zen'in-ga uke-nakat-ta (yo/to omotta).
'The test, all didn't take.' NOT > ALL
In this paper, I will take up some problems that arise with this
analysis, some of which I note in Miyagawa (2001). One problem has to
do with the "finite/subjunctive" distinction. As noted in Miyagawa
(2001), in contrast to (1), it is possible for "zen'in" to be
interpreted inside the scope of negation even in the "normal" SOV word
order if the entire sentence is embedded under a nominal such as
As it turns out, this embedding phenomenon vis-a-vis negative scope
occurs precisely where, in Classical Japanese, the predicate is in the
so-called "rentai" (as opposed to "shuushi) inflection. Although the
shuushi/rentai distinction has been lost in modern Japanese (cf.
Miyagawa 1989 for references), recently, linguists have adopted the
term "subjunctive" to refer to verbs in modern Japanese that occur in
the Classical Japanese "rentai" position (Watanabe 1996, Hiraiwa 2001,
Uchibori 2001). It is important to note that not all embedded clauses
evidence the phenomenon noted above. Embedded clause with the "to"
complementizer behaves like a root clause as in (1).
- zen'in-ga siken-o uke-nakat-ta koto
'the fact that all didn't take the test' NOT > ALL
In Classical Japanese, the embedded predicate under the "to"
complementizer occurred in the "shuushi" inflection instead of the
"rentai" inflection. Thus, the "shuushi/rentai" (finite/subjunctive)
distinction is apparently maintained in modern Japanese even though the
distinction in inflection has been lost. I will look at the
consequences of this for the EPP analysis of scrambling. One
possibility which I will entertain is a "V2" analysis of Japanese,
building on proposals by Whitman (1991) and Koizumi (1995). I
will explore the pros and cons of this alternative to Miyagawa (2001).
- Taroo-ga [zen'in-ga siken-o uke-nakat-ta to] omotta.
'Taro thought that all didn't take the test' *NOT > ALL
- Hiraiwa, Ken. 2001. On the nominative-genitive conversion.
Ora Matushansky, ed. MIT working papers in linguistics.
- Kato, Yasuhiko. 1988. "Negation and the discourse-dependent
property of relative scope in Japanese." Sopia Linguistica 23-24.
- Koizumi, Masatoshi. 1995. Phrase structure in minimalist syntax.
Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, Mass.
- Miyagawa, Shigeru. 1989. Structure and case marking in Japanese.
New York: Academic Press.
- Miyagawa, Shigeru. 1995. Scrambling as an obligatory movement.
In Yasuaki Abe, Tadashi Sakamoto, and Matsuo Soga, ed.,
Proceedings of the Nanzan Conference on Japanese
Language Education and Linguistics, 81-92.
Nagoya University: Nanzan University.
- Miyagawa, Shigeru. 1996. Word order restrictions and
nonconfigurationality. Formal Approaches to Japanese
Linguistics 2, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 29:117-141.
- Miyagawa, Shigeru. 1997. Against optional scrambling.
Linguistic Inquiry 28:1-26.
- Miyagawa, Shigeru. 2001. The EPP, scrambling, and wh-in-situ.
In Michael Kenstowicz, ed., Ken Hale: A life in language,
293-338. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
- Uchibori, Asako. 2001. The syntax of subjunctive complements:
evidence from Japanese. Doctoral dissertation, University of
Connecticut, Storrs, Conn.
- Watanabe, Akira. 1996. Nominative-genitive conversion and
agreement in Japanese: a cross-linguistic perspective. Journal of
East Asian linguistics 5:373-410.
- Whitman, John. 1991. String vacuous V to COMP. Paper presented at
GLOW, March 26,1991. Ms., Cornell University.
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